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The biggest change in farm produced butter and cheese during the late 19th century was the use of metal utensils in place of wooden ones and the introduction of the cream separator machine in the early 1920s. From this time on, dairy maids were rare, but it is not clear whether the changes in technology caused the decrease in a demand for workers, or the maids found work elsewhere and technology had to be developed to replace them.

After the Second World War, when men no longer had horses to look after, they began to do some dairy work, including milking.

The railways also brought cheaper imported butter from Ireland, Denmark and New Zealand.

Jenkins, David, (1971), The Agricultural Community in South-West Wales, p. 262

Some records of farm, estate and commercial dairies survive and have been studied.

Charles, B.G., (1964), The Highmead Dairy, 1778-97, Ceredigion, V., no 1

Davies, J. Ll., (1934), The Diary of a Cardiganshire Farmer, 1870-1900, Welsh Journal of Agriculture, x,