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CATTLE

cattle, Lampeter, 1950s

exhibition number: Agriculture 20

Before about 1700, cattle were kept for their milk. They were kept near the home farm (hendre) during the winter and taken to the hills to feed off grass during the summer where they were tended and milked by members of the farmer's family who stayed in a hafod or lluest.

bull

After about 1700, some herds of cattle were replaced by sheep which didn't require so much attention, and only needed to be gathered together for shearing and washing.

The Square, Talybont

During the 18th and 19th century, cattle were bred in Cardiganshire mostly to sell to markets in England for meat. Many of these were taken across the mountains to market on foot, by drovers. This normally took place at the end of the summer since there was not enough food for the cattle over winter.

A few cattle were kept for their milk which was converted into butter and cheese.

Cattle were given Welsh names by the oldest daughter of the house. This ceremony was accompanied by offering them hay sprinkled with salt. (Horses were given English names).

Moore-Colyer, R.J., (1998), Agriculture and Occupation in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-century Cardiganshire, Ceredigion County History, III, pp. 44-5

Jenkins, David, (1971), The Agricultural Community in South-West Wales, p. 104

Welsh Blacks were kept in Cardiganshire until the end of the 19th century when South Cardiganshire began to breed Shorthorns. These were replaced by Friesians in the 1930s. Some large estates had been keeping Shorthorns and Jerseys before the end of the 19th century. Thomas Johnes at Hafod had been keeping various breeds of cattle before 1800.

The Welsh Black resulted from cross-breeding the Anglesey and Pembroke [Castlemartin?] breeds in 1905. Both were normally black with middle-length horns.

The Board of Agriculture encouraged stock improvements by giving grants to use approved bulls to service the cows.

Jenkins, David, (1971), The Agricultural Community in South-West Wales, p. 265

CATTLE TYPES

Llanfarian Community Council, (2000), Cof Cymuned, a collection of photographs, p. 41

BULL

CATTLE FETTER

CATTLE HALTER WEIGHTS

CATTLE SHACKLES

CATTLE'S EAR MARKING PUNCH

ANIMAL PLAGUES IN CEREDIGION

CATTLE BREEDS

AGRICULTURE INDEX